Five intensive field measurements were carried out at two background sites in Korea; Kosan and Kangwha during spring, fall, and winters of 1996 and 1997 to investigate the characteristics of long-range transport of air pollutants in northeastern Asia. Fine particles (PM2.5) were collected by low-volume samplers and the concentrations of major ions, organic and elemental carbons, and nitric acid were quantified. The concentrations of anthropogenic species in PM2.5 measured at both sites were generally higher than those at other background areas, Nagano, Japan and San Nicolas Is., USA due to continental outflow of air pollutants, but lower than those at an urban background site, Qingdao, China. The major components of PM2.5 were sulfate, organic carbon (OC), and ammonium for Kosan and sulfate, OC, ammonium, and nitrate for Kangwha. The major fractions of sulfate at both sites are non-sea-salts (nss) sulfate. Based on the relationship among major anthropogenic species, analysis of the nss sulfate to total nitrate molar ratios, and backward air parcel trajectories, it was found that fine particles measured at both sites during the measurement periods are mainly coming from China. At Kosan, the concentrations of anthropogenic species were higher when air parcels were coming from southern China than when air parcels were from northern China. At Kangwha, however, the differences of the concentrations were not statistically significant since most air parcels were from northern China and local effects are prominent. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea. The authors thank Dr. Fung at AtmAA, USA for organic and elemental carbon analyses.
- Ammonium to nss sulfate ratio
- Long-range transport
- Northeastern Asia
- Nss sulfate to nitrate ratio