Fate of Surgical Patients with Small Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: An International Study Using Multi-Institutional Registries

In Woong Han, Jangho Park, Eun Young Park, So Jeong Yoon, Gang Jin, Dae Wook Hwang, Kuirong Jiang, Wooil Kwon, Xuefeng Xu, Jin Seok Heo, De Liang Fu, Woo Jung Lee, Xueli Bai, Yoo Seok Yoon, Yin Mo Yang, Keun Soo Ahn, Chunhui Yuan, Hyeon Kook Lee, Bei Sun, Eun Kyu ParkSeung Eun Lee, Sunghwa Kang, Wenhui Lou, Sang Jae Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Several treatment guidelines for sporadic, nonmetastatic nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas (NF-pNETs) have recommended resection, however, tumors ≤ 2 cm do not necessarily need surgery. This study aims to establish a surgical treatment plan for NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm. From 2000 to 2017, 483 patients who underwent resection for NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm in 18 institutions from Korea and China were enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. The median age was 56 (range 16–80) years. The 10-year overall survival rate (10Y-OS) and recurrence-free survival rate (10Y-RFS) were 89.8 and 93.1%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, tumor size (>1.5 cm; HR 4.28, 95% CI 1.80–10.18, p = 0.001) and nodal metastasis (HR 3.32, 95% CI 1.29–8.50, p = 0.013) were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. Perineural invasion (HR 4.36, 95% CI 1.48–12.87, p = 0.008) and high Ki-67 index (≥3%; HR 9.06, 95% CI 3.01–27.30, p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for poor RFS. NF-pNETs ≤ 2 cm showed unfavorable prognosis after resection when the tumor was larger than 1.5 cm, Ki-67 index ≥ 3%, or nodal metastasis was present. NF-pNET patients with tumors ≤ 1.5 cm can be observed if the preoperative Ki-67 index is under 3%, and if nodal metastasis is not suspected in preoperative radiologic studies. These findings support the clinical use to make decisions about small NF-pNETs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1038
JournalCancers
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas
  • Prognosis
  • Resection
  • Risk factors

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