Fast Reconfigurable Electrode Array Based on Titanium Oxide for Localized Stimulation of Cultured Neural Network

Jiaxin Xu, Hamidreza Shirinkami, Seoyoung Hwang, Hee Soo Jeong, Gijung Kim, Sang Beom Jun, Honggu Chun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Planar microelectrode arrays have become standard tools for in vitro neural-network analysis. However, these predefined micropatterned devices lack adaptability to target-specific cells within a cultured network. Herein, we fabricated a reconfigurable TiO2 electrode array with an anatase-brookite bicrystalline polymorphous mesoporous layer. Because of its selective absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light and corresponding photoconductivity, TiO2 electrode array was identified as a promising tool for high-resolution light-addressing. The TiO2 film was used as a semitransparent semiconductor with a high Roff/Ron ratio of 105 and a fast response time of 400 ms. In addition, the effect of UV radiation on the resistance of the TiO2 film over 30 d in an aqueous environment was analyzed, with the film exhibiting high stability. An arbitrary UV pattern was applied to a reconfigurable TiO2 electrode using a digital micromirror device (DMD), affording highly localized neural stimulation at the single-cell level. The reconfigurable TiO2 electrode with a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate enabled the independent connection of up to 60 points with external stimulators and signal recorders. We believe this technique would be helpful for electrophysiological research requiring the analysis of cell and neural-network features using a highly localized neural interface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19092-19101
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number15
StatePublished - 19 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Samsung Electronics (SRFC-IT1501-02).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society


  • Light-addressable electrode
  • neural interface
  • photoconductivity
  • reconfigurable electrode array
  • TiO film


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