Purpose:We quantified the familial risk of renal cell cancer (RCC) among first-degree relatives (FDRs) on a population level, and examined interactions between family history and body mass index or blood glucose.Materials and Methods:Using the National Health Insurance database, which covers the entire Korean population, and the National Health Screening Program, we constructed a cohort of 5,524,403 individuals with blood-related FDRs and their lifestyle factors from 2002 to 2018. We calculated familial risk using incidence risk ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals, which compares the risk of individuals with and without FDR. The combined effect and interaction of a given risk factor and family history of RCC were measured by the relative excess risk due to interaction.Results:Individuals with affected FDRs showed a 2.29-fold (95% CI 1.68-3.13) increased risk of disease. Familial risk adjusted for lifestyle factors showed minimal attenuation (IRR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.65-3.08), suggesting that genetic predisposition is the main contributor in the familial aggregation of RCC. Individuals with both a positive family history and overweight/obesity (IRR 3.71, 95% CI 2.50-4.92) or hyperglycemia (IRR 4.52, 95% CI 2.59-6.45) had a significantly higher risk that exceeded the sum of their individual risks, suggesting an interaction that was statistically significant (relative excess risk due to interaction 95% CI: 0.91, -0.21-2.12; 2.21, 0.28-4.14).Conclusions:Our findings suggest an interaction between genetic and environmental factors, namely obesity and hyperglycemia. Individuals with both factors should be considered a high-risk group and advised to undergo genetic counseling.
- carcinoma, renal cell
- gene-environment interaction