Factors associated with stage of change in smoker in relation to smoking cessation based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-V

Korean Smoking Cessation Study Group

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Despite a decrease in incidence, smoking remains the most serious public health problem worldwide. Identification of the factors contributing to changes in willingness to quit smoking may aid the development of strategies that encourage smoking cessation. Pooled cross-sectional data from 11,924 smokers from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II-V were analyzed. The stages of change in smoking cessation were categorized as pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Baseline characteristics, socioeconomic factors, quality of life, psychological status, and smoking-related factors were compared between groups. The smokers were grouped as follows: 32.4% pre-contemplation, 54.4% contemplation, and 13.1% preparation. The proportion of smokers in the pre-contemplation group decreased (from 37.4% to 28.4%) from 2001 to 2012, while the proportion in the preparation group increased (from 6.4% to 18.1%). Compared with the preparation group, after adjusting for confounding factors, the pre-contemplation group was older [>65 years-old; odds ratio (OR) = 1.40], more often single (OR = 1.38), less educated (elementary school or lower; OR = 1.93), less physically active in terms of walking (OR = 1.38) or performing strengthening exercises (OR = 1.61), smoked more heavily (>20 cigarettes per day; OR = 4.75), and had a lower prevalence of chronic disease (OR = 0.76). Moreover, smokers who had never received education on smoking cessation were less willing to quit than those who had (OR = 0.44). In Korean smokers, the stages of change for smoking cessation were associated with age, education, marital status, chronic diseases, physical activity, and participation in smoking cessation programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0176294
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine for (6-2014-0158). We thank to all members of the Korean Smoking Cessation Study Group: Jae Jeong Shim (Korea University), Tae Hoon Jung (Kyoungpook National University), Yeong Hun Choe (Chonbuk National University), Hyo-Jeong Lim (Veterans Health Service Medical Center), Yong C. Lee(Chonbuk National University), Jinyoung An (Chungbuk National University), Kyeong-Cheol Shin (Yeungnam University), Jae Woo Jung (Chung-Ang University), Yeon Mok Oh (Univeristy of Ulsan), Hyoung Kyu Yoon (Catholic University of Korea), Ki Uk Kim (Pusan National University), Yu-Il Kim (Chonnam National University), Yu Jin Kim (Gachon University), Jae Yeol Kim (Chung-Ang University), Ju Ock Kim (Chungnam National University), Huijung Kim (Wonkwang University), Ju Ock Na (Soonchunhyang University), Jeong-Seon Ryu (Inha University), Won-Yeon Lee (Yonsei University), Myung Jae Park (KyungHee University), Young Sik Park (Seoul National University), Joo Hun Park (Ajou University), Hye Jung Park (Yonsei University), Ji Young Seo (Sungkyunkwan University), and Choon Hee Sohn (Dong-A University)

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Leem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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