Factors associated with meeting cancer prevention guidelines in adults

So Hyun Park, Shiela M. Strauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Because much worldwide cancer incidence and mortality is related to modifiable risk factors, many global health organizations provide evidence-based recommendations on healthy weight, diet, and physical activity levels for cancer prevention. Even though adherence to such guidelines is reported to reduce cancer incidence and mortality, this adherence is often suboptimal. Identifying factors related to adherence to the guidelines can suggest interventions to improve health promoting lifestyle behaviors for cancer prevention. Objectives: Examine a comprehensive set of potentially predictive factors in meeting American Cancer Society's guidelines for healthy weight, fruits and vegetables intake, and physical activity. Methods: Data used in the analysis were from adults aged 18 years and older without a history of a cancer diagnosis who participated in the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2019 (n = 3407). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significant predictors for meeting each of the healthy weight, fruits and vegetables intake, and physical activity guidelines. Results: Overall adherence to each guideline was low: 39.0% met the physical activity guideline, 30.4% met the healthy weight guideline, and 17.6% met the fruits and vegetables intake guideline. Meeting the healthy body weight guideline was greater in current smokers, females, those who had at least some college education, those who did not have a chronic health condition, and those who had very good self-rated health. Meeting the fruits and vegetables intake guideline was greater in females, those who had very good self-rated health, and those who talked to friends or family members regarding their health. Meeting the physical activity guideline was greater in males, those who had household incomes of at least $50,000, those who did not have a chronic health condition, and those who had very good self-rated health. Conclusions: The current analyses identified a unique set of predictors for meeting each guideline among US adults who reported never having been diagnosed with cancer. Based on these findings, interventions related to each guideline should be especially targeted to individuals having characteristics that were less likely to meet them. Clinical relevance: Findings from the current study can assist health care providers who counsel about cancer prevention in the clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-132
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nursing Scholarship
Volume54
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

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