Aim(s). This study conducted a multilevel analysis of mealtime difficulties in older adults with dementia based on the social-ecological model. Background. Mealtime difficulty in this population should be examined from an extensive perspective, rather than approaching it as an individual problem. Method(s). This was a cross-sectional study involving 342 participant dyads from 57 long-term care facilities; 114 direct care workers; and 342 older adults with dementia. A multilevel regression analysis was conducted using the MPlus 8.0 program. Results. Among intrapersonal factors, age, cognitive function, activities of daily living, and number of beds in the facility were identified as affecting mealtime difficulty. Environmental factors included meal assistant education experience and whether an environment suitable for eating had been established. Conclusion(s). The results show that intrapersonal factors exert a large influence on the mealtime difficulties of older adults with dementia in long-term care facilities and support the need to improve environmental factors, which are modifiable. Implications for Nursing Management. This study provided useful information about the influence of leaders on mealtime difficulties in older adults with dementia. Leaders should establish an environment in the facility for reduced mealtime difficulties.
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© 2023 Dukyoo Jung et al.