Fabrication of graphene-oxide/Β-Bi2O3/TiO2/Bi2Ti2O7 heterojuncted nanocomposite and its sonocatalytic degradation for selected pharmaceuticals

Gooyong Lee, Kyoung Hoon Chu, Yasir A.J. Al-Hamadani, Chang Min Park, Min Jang, Jiyong Heo, Namguk Her, Do Hyung Kim, Yeomin Yoon

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36 Scopus citations


A graphene-oxide (GO)/β-Bi2O3/TiO2/Bi2Ti2O7 heterojuncted nanocomposite, designated as GBT, was synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal process. The sonocatalytic activity of the GBT was evaluated at several frequencies (28, 580, and 970 kHz) and compared with Bi-doped GO (GB) and Ti-doped GO (GT). Transmission electron microscopy images showed heterojuncted crystal structures of Bi and Ti on GO, and X-ray diffraction patterns verified that the crystal structures consisted of β-Bi2O3, TiO2, and Bi2Ti2O7 nanocomposites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed a higher proportion of metal on GBT surfaces compared with GB and GT surfaces. The energy band gaps of GT, GB, and GBT were 3.0, 2.8, and 2.5 eV, respectively. Two pharmaceuticals (PhACs; carbamazepine [CBZ] and acetaminophen [ACE]) were selected and treated under sonolytic conditions at frequencies of 28, 580, and 970 kHz at a power level of 180 W L−1. The selected pharmaceuticals, present at initial concentrations of 20 μM, were reduced by over 99% by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of GBT. The 580 kHz treatment achieved the most rapid organic removal among the frequencies tested. The removal kinetic of CBZ was higher than that of ACE owing to its relatively high hydrophobicity. High sonocatalytic activity of GBT was observed through measurement of H2O2 in solution. Because of its low band gaps and high surface activity, GBT exhibited higher sonolytic activity in removing selected PhACs than GT or GB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-733
Number of pages11
StatePublished - Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a grant (code 18IFIP-B088091-05 ) from Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government (Republic of Korea) .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd


  • Bismuth
  • Graphene oxide
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Titanium dioxides
  • Ultrasound


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