This study compared the efficiencies of using subcritical water, hot water, and organic solvents to extract flavonols from black tea, celery, and ginseng leaf. The effect of key operating conditions was determined by varying the temperature (110-200 °C), extraction time (5-15 min), and pressure (about 10 MPa) and the extracts were analysed quantitatively using HPLC. The yields of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from plants were maximal at extraction temperatures of 170 °C, 170 °C and 200 °C, respectively, and they depend on the number of hydroxyl groups included in the chemical structure of the flavonols, with more of those with fewer hydroxyl (OH) groups attached being extracted at higher temperatures. The results also showed that the yields of flavonols by subcritical water extraction were 2.0- to 22.7- and 1.8- to 23.6-fold higher than those obtained using the ethanol and methanol as traditional extraction methods, respectively.
- Hydroxyl group
- Subcritical water extraction