Background Extracorporeal shock wave has been used in the noninvasive treatment of various diseases including musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, shock wave with low energy level showed anti-inflammatory effect and increased angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. However, the detailed cellular pathway in endothelial signaling is not fully understood. We investigate the role of shock wave with low energy level in angiogenic gene expression and underlying molecular mechanism by comparing the laminar and oscillatory fluid shear stresses in endothelial cells. Methods and results We show that shock wave with low energy level (0.012-0.045 mJ/mm2) stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and Erk 1/2 in a time-dependent manner which is similar to the effect of laminar fluid shear stress. The transfection of endothelial cells with siRNA encoding VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 inhibited shock wave-induced phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and Erk 1/2 and angiogenic gene expressions, including Akt, eNOS, KLF2/4, and Nur77. Moreover, mechanical stimulation through extracorporeal shock wave induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that shock wave-induced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and angiogenic gene expression were mediated through the mechanosensory complex formation involving VEGFR-2, VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 which was similar to the effect of laminar shear stress.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( NRF-2011-0009474 ).
- Endothelial cells
- Extracorporeal shock wave
- Fluid shear stress
- Gene expression
- Mechanosensory complex formation