Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was originally identified as a receptor for oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein. It has been reported that oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia play important roles in the etiology of preeclampsia, and that placental oxidative stress may stimulate syncytiotrophoblast apoptosis in preeclampsia. In this study, we examined the expression of LOX-1 in the human placentas of normal pregnancies and in preeclampsia using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and proposed that LOX-1 has a role in trophoblast apoptosis. To analyze apoptotic activity, the expression of the specific caspase cleavage site within cytokeratin 18 was assessed immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody M30 CytoDeath. Both LOX-1 and M30 immunoreactivity occurred predominantly in syncytiotrophoblasts. A significantly higher number of LOX-1 and M30-positive cells were found in preeclamptic placentas than in normal placentas. The number of M30-positive cells correlated with the apoptotic index of trophoblasts determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Syncytiotrophoblasts showing apoptotic activity were immunopositive to LOX-1 by double immunohistochemical fluorescence. We suggest that the functional role of syncytiotrophoblasts in placental dysfunction results from the localization and upregulation of LOX-1 in the preeclamptic placenta, possible implications in upregulation of syncytiotrophoblast apoptotic activity in preeclampsia.