Objectives: Recently, concern with cognitive processing ability has led to view reading as a multiple process where explicit learning and implicit learning are interrelated. The present study investigated whether children with reading disabilities (RD) and typically developing children (TD) show difference in explicit learning ability and implicit learning ability, and whether these abilities correlate with cognitive processing abilities related to reading by group. Methods: The study included 20 RD in the 3rd-4th grade of elementary school and 20 TD matched with the former group in terms of chronological age and gender. Both groups of children were selected after undergoing Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (K-WISC-III) and Test of Reading Achievement & Reading Cognitive Processes Ability (RA-RCP). The study conducted the test of Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL). The AGL tasks consisted of two tasks: 'Perfect Free Recall' to measure explicit learning ability and 'Grammaticality Judgment' to measure implicit learning ability. Results: Both explicit learning ability and implicit learning ability of RD were lower than those of TD. The correlation between cognitive processing abilities related to reading and explicit/implicit learning ability varied depending on the group as well. Conclusion: Lower explicit learning ability of RD seems to be related to memory deficit and the absence of effective learning strategies. Lower implicit learning ability of RD supports the presupposition that the reading difficulties of these children are related to deficits in cognitive functioning.
- Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL)
- Explicit learning ability
- Implicit learning ability
- Reading disability