Exact non-linear equations for cosmological perturbations

Jinn Ouk Gong, Jai Chan Hwang, Hyerim Noh, David Chan Lon Wu, Jaiyul Yoo

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13 Scopus citations


We present a complete set of exact and fully non-linear equations describing all three types of cosmological perturbations - scalar, vector and tensor perturbations. We derive the equations in a thoroughly gauge-ready manner, so that any spatial and temporal gauge conditions can be employed. The equations are completely general without any physical restriction except that we assume a flat homogeneous and isotropic universe as a background. We also comment briefly on the application of our formulation to the non-expanding Minkowski background.

Original languageEnglish
Article number027
JournalJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 18 Oct 2017

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© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab.


  • cosmological perturbation theory
  • gravity


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