Evidence that cognitive deficit in children is associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration: A preliminary study

Kyoung Sook Jeong, Hyewon Park, Eunhee Ha, Yun Chul Hong, Mina Ha, Hyesook Park, Bung Nyun Kim, Soo Jeong Lee, Kyung Yeon Lee, Ja Hyeong Kim, Yangho Kim

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16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To investigate whether blood lead concentrations are elevated in iron-deficient children, and to examine the association between iron deficiency and/or elevated blood lead concentration and cognitive deficits in children. Method: The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 194 children who underwent testing of blood lead and serum C-reactive proteins (CRPs) and ferritin concentrations, and the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. In addition, the mothers' blood lead concentrations during pregnancy were included in the analyses. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between high blood lead and low serum ferritin concentrations, after adjustment for covariates, in children, as well as to analyze the association of verbal IQ with serum ferritin and blood lead concentrations. Results: Lead and ferritin concentrations were inversely and significantly associated in children after adjustment for covariates. Moreover, both concentrations were associated with verbal IQ, after adjustment for covariates, and each was associated with cognitive deficits after adjustment for the other. Sobel test statistics showed that blood lead concentration was a significant partial mediator for the relationship between iron deficiency and verbal IQ. Conclusion: Due to the results discussed in the present study, cognitive deficit in children seems to be associated not only with iron deficiency, but also with blood lead concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-341
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Volume29
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

Keywords

  • Blood lead
  • IQ
  • Serum ferritin
  • WPPSI-R

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