To reduce condensation and ensure occupant comfort, the Korean Design Standard for Preventing Condensation in Apartment Buildings was enacted in 2014. However, glazing edges remain vulnerable to condensation. Because this design standard is recent, few window products satisfy the condensation resistance requirement for glazing edges, especially in the coldest region, and there have been limited investigations on improvement measures. This study evaluates and verifies various treatments for improving the glazing edge thermal resistance of double-glazed four-track horizontal sliding windows to reduce condensation risk and satisfy the design standard. Three-dimensional heat transfer simulations are performed for each alternative to obtain the surface temperature and temperature difference ratio (TDR) for the bottom edge of the glazing. The U-factors of the alternatives satisfying the required TDR for the coldest region are simulated, and the effects of increased local thermal resistance in the glazing edge on the U-factor of the window are analyzed. Mock-up tests are performed on the most economical and best-performing alternatives satisfying the coldest region TDR, and the TDRs and U-factors from the simulations and mock-up tests are compared to verify the performance of the most economical alternative. Insulating spacers, frame extensions, and low-emissivity coatings are effective in various cases.
- Glazing edge
- Temperature difference ratio (TDR)