Production of good Koji primarily depends upon the selection of substrate materials and fermentative microflora, which together influence the characteristic flavor and aroma. Herein, we performed comparative metabolomic analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and primary metabolites for Koji samples fermented individually with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Aspergillus oryzae. The VOCs and primary metabolites were analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). In particular, alcohols, ketones, and furans were mainly detected in Bacillus-fermented Koji (Bacillus Koji, BK), potentially due to the increased levels of lipid oxidation. A cheesy and rancid flavor was characteristic of Bacillus Koji, which is attributable to high content of typical ‘off-flavor’ compounds. Furthermore, the umami taste engendered by 2-methoxyphenol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and glutamic acid was primarily detected in Bacillus Koji. Alternatively, malty flavor compounds (2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal) and sweet flavor compounds (monosaccharides and maltol) were relatively abundant in Aspergillus-fermented Koji (Aspergillus Koji, AK). Hence, we argue that the VOC profile of Koji is largely determined by the rational choice of inocula, which modifies the primary metabolomes in Koji substrates, potentially shaping its volatolome as well as the aroma characteristics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Traditional Culture Convergence Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2017M3C1B5019303).
© 2018 by The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.
- Aspergillus oryzae
- Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
- Koji fermentation
- Mass spectrometry