Cinnamoyl-containing nonribosomal peptides (CCNPs) form a unique family of actinobacterial secondary metabolites and display various biological activities. A new CCNP named epoxinnamide (1) was discovered from intertidal mudflat-derived Streptomyces sp. OID44. The structure of 1 was determined by the analysis of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data along with a mass spectrum. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by the combination of advanced Marfey’s method, 3JHH and rotating-frame overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) analysis, DP4 calculation, and genomic analysis. The putative biosynthetic pathway of epoxinnamide (1) was identified through the whole-genome sequencing of Streptomyces sp. OID44. In particular, the thioesterase domain in the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster was proposed as a bifunctional enzyme, which catalyzes both epimerization and macrocyclization. Epoxinnamide (1) induced quinone reductase (QR) activity in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells by 1.6-fold at 5 μM. It also exhibited effective antiangiogenesis activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (IC50 = 13.4 μM).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Molecular graphics and analyses of proteins performed with UCSF ChimeraX, developed by the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco, with support from National Institutes of Health R01-GM129325 and the Office of Cyber Infrastructure and Computational Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea grants funded by the Korean Government (Ministry of Science and ICT) (2021R1A4A2001251 and 2020R1A2C2003518).
© 2022 by the authors.
- bifunctional thioesterase
- biosynthetic gene cluster
- cinnamoyl-containing nonribosomal peptide
- quinone reductase