The amount of research conducted on osmotic membrane bioreactors (OMBRs) has increased over the past decade because of the advantages of these reactors over conventional membrane bioreactors (MBRs). OMBR process is a hybrid process involving a forward osmosis membrane and biologically activated sludge. It is a promising technology to reduce membrane fouling, enhance effluent water quality, and lower energy consumption compared to conventional MBR processes. Eleven years since the OMBR process was first proposed, about 60 papers regarding the OMBR process have been published. In this article, we address recent advances in OMBR technology based on a review of the literature. Typical factors that influence the performance of the OMBR process are discussed to provide a clear understanding of the current state of this technology. We also provide a critical review of OMBR applications in organic matter, nutrient, and micropollutant removal as well as direct recovery of nutrients from wastewater. We propose several hybrid configurations that can enhance the removal efficiency of OMBR systems. Finally, we present potential research directions for future OMBR research.
- Hybrid processes
- Operating parameters
- Osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR)
- Removal efficiency