Enhancement of the photo conversion efficiencies in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 solar cells fabricated by two-step sulfurization process

Jung Yup Yang, Junggyu Nam, Dongseop Kim, Geeyeong Kim, William Jo, Yoonmook Kang, Dongho Lee

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Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGSS) absorber layers were fabricated by using a modified two-stage sputter and a sequential selenization/sulfurization method, and the sulfurization process is changed from one-step to two-step. The two-step sulfurization was controlled with two different H2S gas concentrations during the sulfurization treatment. This two-step process yielded remarkable improvements in the efficiency (+0.7%), open circuit voltage (+14 mV), short circuit current (+0.23 mA/cm2), and fill factor (+0.21%) of a CIGSS device with 30 × 30 cm2 in size, owing to the good passivation at the grain boundary surface, uniform material composition among the grain boundaries, and modified depth profile of Ga and S. The deterioration of the P/N junction quality was prevented by the optimized S content in the CIGSS absorber layer. The effects of the passivation quality at the grain boundary surface, the material uniformity, the compositional depth profiles, the microstructure, and the electrical characteristics were examined by Kelvin probe force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and current-voltage curves, respectively. The two-step sulfurization process is experimentally found to be useful for obtaining good surface conditions and, enhancing the efficiency, for the mass production of large CIGSS modules.

Original languageEnglish
Article number193901
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number19
StatePublished - 9 Nov 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and was granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20143030011960) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea, grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (2015, University-Institute cooperation program).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


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