Enhanced bioavailability of piroxicam via salt formation with ethanolamines

Hye Sun Gwak, Jun Shik Choi, Hoo Kyun Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Piroxicam can be ionized as a zwitterion that has two pKa values (pKa 1 = 1.86 and pKa2 = 5.46). Consequently, piroxicam has a low solubility in both polar and nonpolar media, and a low lipophilicity, which results in a low permeability. Three piroxicam-ethanolamine salts were prepared, which had a higher area under the curve (AUC) than piroxicam. There were minimal differences in the AUC among the salt forms. It was reported that the piroxicam triethanolamine salt had a lower permeability across the skin than piroxicam but it had a higher oral bioavailability. Piroxicam monoethanolamine showed the highest Cmax followed by piroxicam diethanolamine and piroxicam triethanolamine. The dissolution rates of piroxicam and its salts were similar at pH 1.2. Piroxicam monoethanolamine showed the highest dissolution rate at pH 6.8, which was followed by the piroxicam diethanolamine and piroxicam triethanolamine salts. The order of dissolution rate at pH 6.8 matched the order of Cmax or the AUC after oral administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-161
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 13 Jun 2005


  • Bioavailability
  • Dissolution
  • Ethanolamine
  • Piroxicam
  • Salt


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