Atomic scale engineering of magnetic fields is a key ingredient for miniaturizing quantum devices and precision control of quantum systems. This requires a unique combination of magnetic stability and spin-manipulation capabilities. Surface-supported single atom magnets offer such possibilities, where long temporal and thermal stability of the magnetic states can be achieved by maximizing the magnet/ic anisotropy energy (MAE) and by minimizing quantum tunnelling of the magnetization. Here, we show that dysprosium (Dy) atoms on magnesium oxide (MgO) have a giant MAE of 250 meV, currently the highest among all surface spins. Using a variety of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) techniques including single atom electron spin resonance (ESR), we confirm no spontaneous spin-switching in Dy over days at ≈ 1 K under low and even vanishing magnetic field. We utilize these robust Dy single atom magnets to engineer magnetic nanostructures, demonstrating unique control of magnetic fields with atomic scale tunability.
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