This study evaluated the clinical results of endoscopic carpal tunnel release in carpal tunnel syndrome caused by long-term hemodialysis and compared the results with that of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Operations were done in 32 patients (60 hands) with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and in eight patients (15 hands) with carpal tunnel syndrome resulting from long-term hemodialysis. There was no significant difference in findings of preoperative evaluations and postoperative clinical results between the two groups, except for a difference with the patient satisfaction score with surgery on a visual analogue scale. The mean satisfaction score was 9.0 at 6 months, 9.3 at 1 year, and 9.5 at the 2-year followup in the group of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. However, in the group of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome resulting from long-term hemodialysis, the mean satisfaction score was 8.5 at 6 months, 8.2 at 1 year, and 6.5 at the 2-year followup. The score began to decrease at an average of 17.2 months after surgery. Long-term hemodialysis related carpal tunnel syndrome showed satisfactory short-term clinical results until approximately 1.5 years after the operation. After that time, the symptoms tended to deteriorate in 50% of the patients who received hemodialysis continuously.