Encoding Mie, plasmonic, and diffractive structural colors in the same pixel

Youngji Kim, Jerome K. Hyun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We present a 1D reflective multi-level structural color design that incorporates Mie, plasmonic, and diffractive mechanisms in the same pixel. Comprised of a metallodielectric grating made of TiOx nanowires sandwiched between Ag thin film and Ag substrate, the design can exhibit either a Mie resonance or a localized plasmonic resonance depending on the polarization of incident light, resulting in dramatically different color states. Due to the periodicity, the grating also diffracts light, providing an additional color state. Since diffraction can be turned on or off by the degree of coherence of the incoming light, both Mie and plasmonic colors can be modulated using objective lenses with different numerical apertures. Exploiting the different color generating modes, we encode four layers of information in a pixel array, where each layer is unveiled using a different combination of excitation and imaging settings. These results introduce new possibilities for data encryption, anticounterfeiting, and data storage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3341-3349
Number of pages9
Issue number16
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston.


  • Mie resonance
  • diffraction
  • multi-level encryption
  • plasmonic resonance
  • structural color


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