Emerging inorganic solar cell efficiency tables (version 2)

Andriy Zakutayev, Jonathan D. Major, Xiaojing Hao, Aron Walsh, Jiang Tang, Teodor K. Todorov, Lydia H. Wong, Edgardo Saucedo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


This paper presents the second version of the efficiency tables of materials considered as emerging inorganic absorbers for photovoltaic solar cell technologies. The materials collected in these tables are selected based on their progress in recent years, and their demonstrated potential as future photovoltaic absorbers. The first part of the paper consists of the guidelines for the inclusion of the different technologies in this paper, the verification means used by the authors, and recommendation for measurement best practices. The second part details the highest world-class certified solar cell efficiencies, and the highest non-certified cases (some independently confirmed). The third part highlights the new entries including the record efficiencies, as well as new materials included in this version of the tables. The final part is dedicated to review a specific aspect of materials research that the authors consider of high relevance for the scientific community. In this version of the efficiency tables, we are including an overview of the latest progress in quasi one-dimensional absorbers, such as antimony chalcogenides, for photovoltaic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number032003
JournalJPhys Energy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
E S thanks H2020 EU Programme under the projects SENSATE (H2020-ERC-CoG-2019-866018) and CUSTOM-ART (H2020-LC-SC3-2020-RES-IA-CSA-952982), and the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities for the IGNITE Project (ENE2017-87671-C3-1-R). L H W thanks Shreyash Hadke for compiling the selected literature for complex chalcogenides and acknowledges funding from CREATE Programme under the Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), which is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore; and Ministry of Education (MOE) Tier 2 Project (MOE2016-T2-1-030). A Z was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DEAC36-08GO28308 with the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, the manager and operator of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). A Z would like to thank Nikos Kopidakis at NREL for useful discussions. The views expressed in the article do not necessarily represent the views of the DOE or the U.S. Government. X H acknowledges funding support from Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA, 1-USO028 and 2017/RND006) and Australian Research Council (ARC) (future fellowship programme, FT190100756). J T acknowledge the financial support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61725401) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2016YFA0204000).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 JPhys Energy. All rights reserved.


  • conversion efficiency
  • emerging photovoltaic technologies
  • solar energy
  • thin film inorganic photovoltaics


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