Recent observations of broken symmetries have partly demystified the pseudogap phase. Here we review evidence for long-range intra-unit-cell (IUC) nematic order and its unexpectedly strong coupling to the phase of the fluctuating stripes in the pseudogap states of underdoped Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ. In particular, we focus on the analysis techniques that reveal this evidence in scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, the definition of the extracted IUC nematic order parameter, and a phenomenological theory of the coupling between the IUC nematic order and the previously reported coexisting fluctuating stripes. We also present a microscopic mechanism of IUC nematic order driven by on-site and near-neighbor repulsions. Finally we discuss open questions in the context of these results.
- Electronic liquid crystal