Electrochemical study of agarose hydrogels for natural convection on macroelectrodes and ultramicroelectrodes

Jihun Han, Sukman Jang, Byung Kwon Kim, Kyungsoon Park

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Electrochemical measurements using an agarose hydrogel as a solid electrolyte and ferrocyanide as a redox probe were conducted to analyze transport properties and natural convection effects. The mass transport properties and diffusion coefficients of ferrocyanide were studied using various macroelectrodes and ultramicroelectrodes via cyclic voltammetry. The experimental results confirmed that the mass transfer behavior in agarose was similar to that in solution. The good linearity of the square root of the scan-rate-dependent peak current demonstrated that diffusion is dominant during mass transfer in agarose hydrogel owing to a reduction in other mass transport effects (i.e., migration and convection). Furthermore, chronoamperometry (CA) was performed to estimate the effects of natural convection in the solution and agarose hydrogel. CA curves and plots of current as a function of the inverse square root of time yielded irregular and irreproducible responses in the solution for relatively long-term electrochemistry. However, in the agarose hydrogel, the CA response was more regular and reproducible for > 300 s because of reduced natural convection, based on the Cottrell’s theory.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10
JournalJournal of Analytical Science and Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Agarose hydrogel
  • Long-term electrochemistry
  • Mass transport properties
  • Natural convection


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