An efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell whose performance is reproducible and shows reduced dependence on the processing conditions is fabricated using the cyclic urea compound 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) as an additive to the precursor solution of CH3NH3PbI3. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that DMI weakly coordinates with PbI2 and forms a CH3NH3PbI3 film (film-DMI) with no intermediate phase. The surface of annealed film-DMI (film-DMI-A) was smooth, with an average crystal size of 1 μm. Photoluminescence and transient photovoltage measurements show that film-DMI-A exhibits a longer carrier lifetime than a CH3NH3PbI3 film prepared using the strongly coordinating additive dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (film-DMSO-A) because of the reduced number of defect sites in film-DMI-A. A solar cell based on film-DMI-A exhibits a higher power conversion efficiency (17.6%) than that of a cell based on film-DMSO-A (15.8%). Furthermore, the performance of the film-DMI-A solar cell is less sensitive to the ratio between PbI2 and DMI, and film-DMI can be fabricated under a high relative humidity of 55%.
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© 2018 American Chemical Society.
- intermediate phase
- solar cells
- urea additive