BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ginseng extract (GSE) and taurine (TR) are widely used antifatigue resources in functional foods. However, the mechanism underlying the antifatigue effects of GSE and TR are still unclear. Hence, we investigated whether GSE and TR have synergistic effects against fatigue in mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: L6 cells were treated with different concentrations of TR and GSE, and cell viability was determined using 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium. Oxidative stress was analyzed by immunocytochemistry using MitoTracker™ Red FM and an anti-8-oxoguanine antibody. Respiratory gas analysis was performed to investigate metabolism. Expression of an activated protein kinase was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Gene expression of cluster of differentiation 36 and pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 4 was measured using reverse transcription– polymerase chain reaction. Mice were orally administered TR, GSE, or their combination for 30 days, and then fatigue-related parameters, including lactate, blood urea nitrogen, and glycogen, were measured after forced swimming. RESULTS: TR and GSE reduced oxidative stress levels in hydrogen peroxide-stimulated L6 cells and enhanced the oxygen uptake and lipid metabolism in mice after acute exercise. After oral administration of TR or GSE for 30 days, the fatigue-related parameters did not change in mice. However, the mice administered GSE (400 mg/kg/day) alone for 30 days could swim longer than those from the other groups. Further, no synergistic effect was observed after the swimming exercise in mice treated with the TR and GSE combination for 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest that TR and GSE may exert antifatigue effects in mice after acute exercise by enhancing oxygen uptake and lipid oxidation.
- Lipid metabolism