The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of steeping period (1, 11, and 21 d) and temperature (15, 25, and 35 °C) of waxy rice on the physical and sensory characteristics of Gangjung (a traditional Korean oil-puffed snack). Increasing the steeping period from 1 to 21 d and increasing the temperature from 15 to 35 °C markedly increased the oil absorption ratio of Gangjung. Textural analysis indicated that the number of peaks (representing the internal air cell characteristics) for Gangjung decreased in proportion with increasing steeping temperature and period, but that the hardness was affected significantly only by steeping period. Regarding the sensory characteristics of Gangjung, 5 appearance, 7 flavor, and 9 texture attributes were developed and evaluated by trained descriptive panelists. When the steeping temperature and the steeping period were increased, the degree of expansion, size, and degree of external roughness increased, while the strength of external color decreased. Regarding the flavor attributes, the intensity of sweetness and toasted carbohydrate food flavor tended to decrease with increasing steeping temperature and period, while sourness and butyric acid flavor, which are related to the fermentation of waxy rice, increased. Finally, the increased steeping temperature and period decreased the intensity of hardness, crispness, and toughness of Gangjung but increased the degree of fracture, degree of melting, and oiliness.
- Descriptive analysis
- Gangjung (Yukwa)
- Physical and sensory characteristics