Bacillus subtilis is often exposed to diverse culture conditions with the aim of improving hygiene or food quality. This can lead to changes in the volatile metabolite profiles related to the quality of fermented foods. To comprehensively interpret the associated metabolic expressions, changes in intracellular primary and extracellular secondary volatile metabolites were investigated by exposing B. subtilis to an alkaline pH (BP, pH 8.0) and a high salt concentration (BS, 1 M). In particular, B. subtilis was cultured in a leucine-enriched medium to investigate the formation of leucine-derived volatile metabolites. This study observed metabolic changes in several metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and leucine degradation. The formation of proline (an osmolyte), furans, pyrrole, and monosaccharide sugars (glucose, galactose, and fructose) was enhanced in BS, whereas fatty acid derivatives (ketones and alcohols) increased in BP. In the case of leucine degradation, 3-methyl-butanal and 3-methylbutanol could be salt-specific metabolites, while the contents of 3-methylbutanoic acid and 3-methylbutylacetate increased in BP. These results show culture condition-specific metabolic changes, especially secondary volatile metabolites related to the sensory property of foods, in B. subtilis.
- Bacillus subtilis
- Metabolic changes