Traditional and cyber victimization can be considered similar in several respects, including the long-lasting damage done to the wellbeing of youth. However, it is important to acknowledge that they represent two clearly distinct phenomena and, as such, the impact of school rules on their development might differ. The present longitudinal study applies a multilevel model for a change approach to data resulting from a four-waves survey that followed a random sample of 101 Swiss middle school classes (N = 1500; MageT1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40) for a period of two school years. Findings from the analyses—which were conducted controlling for gender and economic status—showed that those students who perceive that school rules are implemented more consistently experience a slightly less steep increase in victimization online. A similar effect for traditional victimization was not found, probably because the observed change in this phenomenon was less. Considering the overall small effects found by this research, further investigation on the relation between school rule enforcement and peer victimization is recommended.
|International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
|Published - Aug 2022
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- school rules