Effects of Perceived School Rule Enforcement on Traditional and Cyber Victimization: A Panel Study among Early Adolescents

Anna Bullo, Lyne H. Zen-Ruffinen, Peter J. Schulz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Traditional and cyber victimization can be considered similar in several respects, including the long-lasting damage done to the wellbeing of youth. However, it is important to acknowledge that they represent two clearly distinct phenomena and, as such, the impact of school rules on their development might differ. The present longitudinal study applies a multilevel model for a change approach to data resulting from a four-waves survey that followed a random sample of 101 Swiss middle school classes (N = 1500; MageT1 = 11.54, SD = 0.40) for a period of two school years. Findings from the analyses—which were conducted controlling for gender and economic status—showed that those students who perceive that school rules are implemented more consistently experience a slightly less steep increase in victimization online. A similar effect for traditional victimization was not found, probably because the observed change in this phenomenon was less. Considering the overall small effects found by this research, further investigation on the relation between school rule enforcement and peer victimization is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10218
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • bullying
  • cyber
  • longitudinal
  • school rules
  • victimization

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of Perceived School Rule Enforcement on Traditional and Cyber Victimization: A Panel Study among Early Adolescents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this