Enzymatically hydrolysed wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH) was deamidated using glutaminase to produce deamidated wheat gluten hydrolysate (DWGH). Volatile components were analysed in WGH and DWGH thermally reacted with glucose or fructose. In the reaction system containing glucose, 19 pyrazines, 2 furans, and 5 sulphur-containing components were detected in WGH, while 34 pyrazines, 4 furans, and 7 sulphur-containing components were found in DWGH. In the system containing fructose, 24 pyrazines, 3 furans, and 6 sulphur-containing components were identified in the thermal reaction of WGH, whereas 36 pyrazines, 4 furans, and 8 sulphur-containing components were found in DWGH. The volatile components increased in DWGH, both qualitatively and quantitatively, mainly due to free ammonia released by deamidation. More volatiles were also developed in WGH and DWGH with fructose than with glucose. It was found that ammonia released from wheat protein via deamidation participated in the generation of diverse volatile components including pyrazines in the Maillard reaction.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by Technology Development Programme for Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea (107077–3).
- Volatile components
- Wheat gluten