Objectives: To elucidate the relationship between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and Plasmodium vivax recurrence in patients receiving primaquine-based treatment through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for eligible studies published up to August of 2021. We included studies investigating the associations between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and P. vivax recurrence. We evaluated the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Data from nine studies, including 970 patients, were analyzed. We found that CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), or normal metabolizers slow (NM-Ss) were associated with a 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.34–2.45; P = 0.0001) higher recurrence of P. vivax than normal metabolizers fast (NM-Fs), extensive metabolizers (EMs), or ultrarapid metabolizer (UMs). Subgroup analysis showed that studies on both Brazilian and Southeast or East Asian individuals had similar results to the main results. Sensitivity analysis by sequentially excluding individual studies also showed robust results (OR range: 1.63–2.01). Conclusions: This meta-analysis confirmed that CYP2D6 PMs, IMs, or NM-Ss increased the risk of P. vivax recurrence compared to NM-Fs, EMs, or UMs. The results of this study could be used to predict P. vivax recurrence and suggest CYP2D6 genotype-based primaquine dosing.
- CYP2D6 phenotype
- Plasmodium vivax