Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees: Light, Medium, City, and French. To examine the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting degrees, we used 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were pre-treated with coffee extracts for 10 days by oral gavage (300 mg/Kg.B.W). After the last pre-treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/Kg.B.W) was injected intraperitoneally for immune stimulation. Histopathological analysis showed that hepatic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis were severe in the LPS-treated group. However, these phenomena were greatly ameliorated when mice were pre-treated with Light- or Medium-roasted coffee extracts. Hepatic glutathione level was increased in the French group but decreased in the LPS-stimulated group. When mice were treated with LPS, mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased, whereas TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the Light and Medium groups. Treatment with coffee extracts decreased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice stimulated by LPS, regardless of coffee roasting degrees. These effects decreased with the increasing coffee roasting degree. Results of luciferase reporter assay revealed that these effects of coffee extracts were transcriptionally regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the roasting degree affects the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2016R1D1A1B04935653).
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2016R1D1A1B04935653).
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Anti-inflammatory response
- Coffee extracts
- Roasting degree