Coffee is widely consumed worldwide and impacts glucose metabolism. After a previous meta-analysis that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on insulin resistance and sensitivity, additional randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of coffee consumption on insulin resistance or sensitivity. We selected RCTs that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption for seven days or more on insulin sensitivity or resistance using surrogate indices (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda index). The fixed-effects or random-effects model was used according to heterogeneity. Four studies with 268 participants were analyzed in this meta-analysis. Coffee consumption significantly decreased HOMA-IR compared to control (mean difference (MD) = −0.13; 95% CI = −0.24–−0.03; p-value = 0.01). However, the significance was not maintained in the sensitivity analysis (MD = −0.04; 95% CI = −0.18–0.10; p-value = 0.55) after excluding data from the healthy, young, normal-weight group. Matsuda index was not significantly different between coffee and control groups (standardized mean difference (SMD) = −0.33; 95% CI = −0.70–0.03; p-value = 0.08). In conclusion, long-term coffee consumption has a nonsignificant effect on insulin resistance and sensitivity. More studies evaluating the effects of coffee consumption in the healthy, young, and normal-weight individuals are needed.
- Insulin resistance
- Insulin sensitivity