A variety of cytokines are dysregulated in schizophrenia, and some anti-psychotic drugs effect cytokines. In order to examine the effect of risperidone on plasma cytokines, we measured the serum level of IL-lb, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-g during acute states of illness, and after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone in 19 schizophrenic patients. The patients' psychopathology was assessed by PANSS. Plasma IL-12 levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of treatment (p = .002). Plasma IL-b, IL-2, IL-6, and INF-g levels were not significantly different before and after treatment. There were no significant correlations between the changes in cytokine levels and the changes in PANSS scores. Increased IL-12 may contribute to activation of immune responses during treatment with risperidone. IL-12 may play an important role in immune responses related to neuropsychiatry.