Effect of lead(IV) acetate on procoagulant activity in human red blood cells

Keun Young Kim, Kyung Min Lim, Jung Hun Shin, Ji Yoon Noh, Jae Bum Ahn, Da Hye Lee, Jin Ho Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitously occurring environmental heavy metal which is widely used in industry and human life. Possibly due to a global industrial expansion, recent studies have revealed the prevalent human exposure to Pb and increased risk of Pb toxicity. Once ingested by human, 95% of absorbed Pb is accumulated into erythrocytes and erythrocytes are known to be a prime target for Pb toxicity. Most of the studies were however, focused on Pb2+ whereas the effects of Pb4+, another major form of Pb on erythrocytes are poorly understood yet. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of Pb4+, Pb2+ and other heavy metals on procoagulant activation of erythrocytes, an important factor for the participation of erythrocytes in thrombotic events in an effort to address the cardiovascular toxicity of Pb4+. Freshly isolated erythrocytes from human were incubated with Pb4+, Pb2+, Cd2+ and Ag+ and the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), key marker for procoagulant activation was measured using flow cytometry. As a result, while Cd2+ and Ag+ did not affect PS exposure, Pb4+ and Pb2+ induced significantly PS exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Of a particular note, Pb4+ induced PS exposure with a similar potency with Pb2+. PS bearing microvesicle (MV), another important contributor to procoagulant activation was also generated by Pb4+. These PS exposure and MV generation by Pb4+ were well in line with the shape change of erythrocyte from normal discocytes to MV shedding echinocytes following Pb4+ treatment. Meanwhile, nonspecific hemolysis was not observed suggesting the specificity of Pb4+-induced PS exposure and MV generation. These results indicated that Pb4+ could induce procoagulant activation of erythrocytes through PS exposure and MV generation, suggesting that Pb4+ exposure might ultimately lead to increased thrombotic events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-180
Number of pages6
JournalToxicological Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2009


  • Hemolysis
  • Lead
  • Microvesicle generation
  • Pb
  • Phosphatidylserine exposure
  • Red blood cell


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of lead(IV) acetate on procoagulant activity in human red blood cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this