BACKGROUND: Red ginseng is produced by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. Through this processing, chemical compounds are modified, and then biological activities are changed. In the food-processing industry, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has become an alternative to heat processing to make maximum use of bioactive compounds in food materials. This study comparatively investigated the anti-adipogenic effects of water extract of red ginseng (WRG) and high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng (HPG) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RESULTS: Both WRG and HPG inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and triglycerides, and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Intracellular lipid content and GPDH activity were significantly lower in the HPG group compared to the WRG group. In addition, mRNA expression of adipogenic genes, including CEBP-α, SREBP-1c and aP2, were lower in HPG-treated cells compared to WRG-treated cells. HPG significantly increased the activity of AMPK, and WRG did not. CONCLUSION: Results suggested that HPG may have superior beneficial effects on the inhibition of adipogenesis compared with WRG. The anti-adipogenic effects of HPG were partially associated with the inhibition of GPDH activity, suppression of adipogenic gene expression and activation of AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
- 3T3-L1 cells
- Fresh ginseng
- High hydrostatic pressure extract