Effect of DR1558, a Deinococcus radiodurans response regulator, on the production of GABA in the recombinant Escherichia coli under low pH conditions

Sung Ho Park, Yu Jung Sohn, Si Jae Park, Jong Il Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important platform chemical, which has been used as a food additive and drug. Additionally, GABA is a precursor of 2-pyrrolidone, which is used in nylon synthesis. GABA is usually synthesized from glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). Currently, there are several reports on GABA production from monosodium glutamate (MSG) or glucose using engineered microbes. However, the optimal pH for GAD activity is 4, which is the limiting factor for the efficient microbial fermentative production of GABA as fermentations are performed at pH 7. Recently, DR1558, a response regulator in the two-component signal transduction system was identified in Deinococcus radiodurans. DR1558 is reported to confer cellular robustness to cells by binding the promoter regions of genes via DNA-binding domains or by binding to the effector molecules, which enable the microorganisms to survive in various environmental stress conditions, such as oxidative stress, high osmotic shock, and low pH. Results: In this study, the effect of DR1558 in enhancing GABA production was examined using two different strategies: whole-cell bioconversion of GABA from MSG and direct fermentative production of GABA from glucose under acidic culture conditions. In the whole-cell bioconversion, GABA produced by E. coli expressing GadBC and DR1558 (6.52 g/L GABA from 13 g/L MSG·H2O) in shake flask culture at pH 4.5 was 2.2-fold higher than that by E. coli expressing only GadBC (2.97 g/L of GABA from 13 g/L MSG·H2O). In direct fermentative production of GABA from glucose, E. coli ΔgabT expressing isocitrate dehydrogenase (IcdA), glutamate dehydrogenase (GdhA), GadBC, and DR1558 produced 1.7-fold higher GABA (2.8 g/L of GABA from 30 g/L glucose) than E. coli ΔgabT expressing IcdA, GdhA, and GadBC (1.6 g/L of GABA from 30 g/L glucose) in shake flask culture at an initial pH 7.0. The transcriptional analysis of E. coli revealed that DR1558 conferred acid resistance to E. coli during GABA production. The fed-batch fermentation of E. coli expressing IcdA, GdhA, GadBC, and DR1558 performed at pH 5.0 resulted in the final GABA titer of 6.16 g/L by consuming 116.82 g/L of glucose in 38 h. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate GABA production by acidic fermentation and to provide an engineering strategy for conferring acid resistance to the recombinant E. coli for GABA production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number64
JournalMicrobial Cell Factories
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Mar 2020

Keywords

  • Acid resistance
  • DR1558
  • Deinococcus radiodurans
  • Escherichia coli
  • Gamma aminobutyrate

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