Eff ects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fi eld on immune functions in rats

Yeung Bae Jin, Bo Jeong Pyun, Hee Jin, Hyung Do Choi, Jeong Ki Pack, Nam Kim, Yun Sil Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Purpose : Despite the importance of the immune system in defending the body against infection and cancer, little research on the possible eff ects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fi eld (RF-EMF) signals on immune functions exists, and, in the case of simultaneous combined exposure of RF-EMF, to the best of our knowledge no work has been done. The aim of this study was to assess the eff ect of simultaneous exposure to two types of RF-EMF signals, single code division multiple access (CDMA) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) signals on the immune system of rats. Materials and methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole body average specifi c absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg. Every 2 weeks after the experiment began, 20 rats were autopsied. Blood hematology, subtype population of splenocytes and cytokine production or mRNA expressions, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α , IL-1 β , interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β from the splenocytes or IL-6, TNF-α , and immunoglobulin (Ig) of IgG and IgM from blood serum, were examined. Results : The results suggest that 8-week exposure to CDMA (849 MHz) and WCDMA (1.95 GHz) RF simultaneously at 2.0 W/kg each for 45-min RF-EMF exposure (total, 4 W/kg) did not aff ect these immune parameters. Conclusions : The present experiments suggest that simultaneous combined exposure of CDMA and WCDMA with total SAR dose of 4.0 W/kg for 45 min/day for 8 weeks, which is a relatively high SAR level compared to the exposure levels for the human system recommended by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, 0.4W/kg for whole body exposure levels and 2.0 W/kg for local exposure levels of general public), did not have any detectable eff ects on immune function in rats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)814-821
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work also supported Ewha Global Top5 Grant 2011 and RP-Grant 2011 of Ewha Womans University.

Funding Information:
A grant from the Korea Communications Commission (2010) supported this work.


  • CDMA
  • combined exposure
  • cytokines
  • immune function


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