East palearctic treefrog past and present habitat suitability using ecological niche models

Desiree Andersen, Irina Maslova, Zoljargal Purevdorj, Jia Tang Li, Kevin R. Messenger, Jin Long Ren, Yikweon Jang, Amaël Borzée

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Ecological niche modeling is a tool used to determine current potential species' distribution or habitat suitability models which can then be used to project suitable areas in time. Projections of suitability into past climates can identify locations of climate refugia, or areas with high climatic stability likely to contain the highest levels of genetic diversity and stable populations when climatic conditions are less suitable in other parts of the range. Modeling habitat suitability for closely related species in recent past can also reveal potential periods and regions of contact and possible admixture. In the east palearctic, there are five Dryophytes (Hylid treefrog) clades belonging to two groups: Dryophytes japonicus group: Clades A and B; and Dryophytes immaculatus group: Dryophytes immaculatus, Dryophytes flaviventris, and Dryophytes suweonensis. We used maximum entropy modeling to determine the suitable ranges of these five clades during the present and projected to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) periods. We also calculated climatic stability for each clade to identify possible areas of climate refugia. Our models indicated suitable range expansion during the LGM for four clades with the exclusion of D. immaculatus. High climatic stability in our models corresponded to areas with the highest numbers of recorded occurrences in the present. The models produced here can additionally serve as baselines for models of suitability under climate change scenarios and indicate species ecological requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12999
StatePublished - Mar 2022


  • Dryophytes
  • East palearctic
  • Ecological niche model
  • Northeast Asia
  • Past distributions
  • Treefrog
  • Yellow sea


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