Mucosal epithelia are in direct contact with microbes, which range from beneficial symbionts to pathogens. Accordingly, hosts must have a conflicting strategy to combat pathogens efficiently while tolerating symbionts. Recent progress has revealed that dual oxidase (DUOX) plays a key role in mucosal immunity in organisms that range from flies to humans. Information from the genetic model of Drosophila has advanced our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of DUOX and its role in mucosal immunity. Further investigations of DUOX regulation in response to symbiotic or non-symbiotic bacteria and the in vivo consequences in host physiology will give a novel insight into the microbe-controlling system of the mucosa.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Creative Research Initiative Program and in part by the WCU (R31-2008-000-10010-0) program and the Brain Korea 21 project from Korea Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. M.K.C. is supported by RP-Grant 2009 of Ewha Woman's University and Y.S. B. is supported by National Research Laboratory program (ROA-2007-000-20004-00).