P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition has been studied to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy but failed in clinical trials due to low/toxic effects. Recently, a dual modulation of transporters and natural derivatives have been examined to surmount this limitation. We examined breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibition in vitro and in vivo by P-gp inhibitors de-rived from natural compounds in previous studies. P-gp inhibitors increased the accumulation of the anticancer drug, topotecan (TPT)—a substrate of P-gp and BCRP, albeit with higher affinity for BCRP—in BCRP-overexpressing cells, resulting in cell death. These dual inhibitors, when orally co-administered with TPT, enhanced TPT bioavailability with slightly reduced total oral clearance (Clt/F) in rats. In xenograft mice, they strengthened oral TPT-induced tumor reduction with no al-terations in body weight. Moreover, we investigated the effects of an oral drug formulation (Cre-mophor® EL, Tween® 80, and polyethylene glycol 400) on the transporters function. The excipients increased TPT accumulation in P-gp-or BCRP-overexpressing cells. Oral TPT bioavailability was higher with the formulation than with a control, as shown by the increases in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from zero to infinity (AUCINF) (p < 0.01). Therefore, oral TPT bioavailability was enhanced by P-gp/BCRP dual inhibition, which resulted in a formulation-mediated increase in absorption and decrease in elimination, and a dual inhibitor-mediated decrease in elimination. These results suggest that the combination of dual inhibition by a natural derivative and the drug formulation can be a useful clinical approach.
- Oral bioavailability
- P-gp and BCRP dual inhibition
- Tumor growth