Direct local delivery of immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers to a tumor site is an attractive approach for leading ICD effectively, due to enabling the concentrated delivery of ICD inducers to the tumor site. Herein, we prepared doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using different molecular weight PLGA (7000 g/mol and 12,000 g/mol), showing different drug release kinetics. The different release kinetics of DOX might differently stimulate a tumor cell-specific immune response by releasing damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), resulting in showing a different antitumor response in the living body. DOX-PLGA7K NPs showed faster DOX release kinetics than DOX-PLGA12K NPs in the physiological condition. DOX-PLGA7K NPs and DOX-PLGA12K NPs were successfully taken up by the CT-26 tumor cells, subsequently showing different DOX localization times at the nucleus. Released DOX successfully lead to cytotoxicity and HMGB1 release in vitro. Although the DOX-PLGA7K NPs and DOX-PLGA12K NPs showed different sustained DOX release kinetics in vitro, tumor growth of the CT-26 tumor was similarly inhibited for 28 days post-direct tumor injection. Furthermore, the immunological memory effect was successfully established by the ICD-based tumor-specific immune responses, including DC maturation and tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We expect that the controlled release of ICD-inducible chemotherapeutic agents, using different types of nanomedicines, can provide potential in precision cancer immunotherapy by controlling the tumor-specific immune responses, thus improving the therapeutic efficacy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Science (NRF-2019R1A2C3006283), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology (Korea University) and the Intramural Research Program of KIST.
Funding: This work was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Science (NRF-2019R1A2C3006283), the KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology (Korea University) and the Intramural Research Program of KIST.
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Cancer immunotherapy
- Drug release
- Immunogenic cell death