Scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) combined with electron spin resonance (ESR) has enabled single-spin spectroscopy with nanoelectronvolt energy resolution and angstrom-scale spatial resolution, which allows quantum sensing and magnetic resonance imaging at the atomic scale. Extending this spectroscopic tool to a study of multiple spins, however, is nontrivial due to the extreme locality of the STM tunnel junction. Here we demonstrate double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy in an STM for two coupled atomic spins by simultaneously and independently driving them using two continuous-wave radio frequency voltages. We show the ability to drive and detect the resonance of a spin that is remote from the tunnel junction while read-out is achieved via the spin in the tunnel junction. Open quantum system simulations for two coupled spins reproduce all double-resonance spectra and further reveal a relaxation time of the remote spin that is longer by an order of magnitude than that of the local spin in the tunnel junction. Our technique can be applied to quantum-coherent multi-spin sensing, simulation, and manipulation in engineered spin structures on surfaces.
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© 2023 American Chemical Society.
- double electron−electron spin resonance
- electron-spin resonance
- open quantum systems
- quantum state control
- scanning−tunneling microscopy