Dose-Dependent Cardioprotection of Moderate (32°C) Versus Mild (35°C) Therapeutic Hypothermia in Porcine Acute Myocardial Infarction

Rajesh Dash, Yoshiaki Mitsutake, Wook Bum Pyun, Fady Dawoud, Jennifer Lyons, Atsushi Tachibana, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Yuka Matsuura, Frank D. Kolodgie, Renu Virmani, Michael V. McConnell, Uday Illindala, Fumiaki Ikeno, Alan Yeung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives The study investigated whether a dose response exists between myocardial salvage and the depth of therapeutic hypothermia. Background Cardiac protection from mild hypothermia during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has yielded equivocal clinical trial results. Rapid, deeper hypothermia may improve myocardial salvage. Methods Swine (n = 24) undergoing AMI were assigned to 3 reperfusion groups: normothermia (38°C) and mild (35°C) and moderate (32°C) hypothermia. One-hour anterior myocardial ischemia was followed by rapid endovascular cooling to target reperfusion temperature. Cooling began 30 min before reperfusion. Target temperature was reached before reperfusion and was maintained for 60 min. Infarct size (IS) was assessed on day 6 using cardiac magnetic resonance, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, and histopathology. Results Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride area at risk (AAR) was equivalent in all groups (p = 0.2), but 32°C exhibited 77% and 91% reductions in IS size per AAR compared with 35°C and 38°C, respectively (AAR: 38°C, 45 ± 12%; 35°C, 17 ± 10%; 32°C, 4 ± 4%; p < 0.001) and comparable reductions per LV mass (LV mass: 38°C, 14 ± 5%; 35°C, 5 ± 3%; 32°C 1 ± 1%; p < 0.001). Importantly, 32°C showed a lower IS AAR (p = 0.013) and increased immunohistochemical granulation tissue versus 35°C, indicating higher tissue salvage. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance IS LV also showed marked reduction at 32°C (38°C: 10 ± 4%, p < 0.001; 35°C: 8 ± 3%; 32°C: 3 ± 2%, p < 0.001). Cardiac output on day 6 was only preserved at 32°C (reduction in cardiac output: 38°C, –29 ± 19%, p = 0.041; 35°C: –17 ± 33%; 32°C: –1 ± 28%, p = 0.041). Using linear regression, the predicted IS reduction was 6.7% (AAR) and 2.1% (LV) per every 1°C reperfusion temperature decrease. Conclusions Moderate (32°C) therapeutic hypothermia demonstrated superior and near-complete cardioprotection compared with 35°C and control, warranting further investigation into clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-205
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Jan 2018

Keywords

  • acute MI
  • cardiac MRI dose response
  • hypothermia
  • ischemia-reperfusion injury

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