DNA Privacy: Analyzing Malicious DNA Sequences Using Deep Neural Networks

Ho Bae, Seonwoo Min, Hyun Soo Choi, Sungroh Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the successful insertion of video information into DNA using synthesized oligonucleotides. Several attempts have been made to embed larger data into living organisms. This process of embedding messages is called steganography and it is used for hiding and watermarking data to protect intellectual property. In contrast, steganalysis is a group of algorithms that serves to detect hidden information from covert media. Various methods have been developed to detect messages embedded in conventional covert channels. However, conventional steganalysis algorithms are mostly limited to common covert media. Most common detection approaches, such as frequency analysis-based methods, often overlook important signals when directly applied to DNA steganography and are easily bypassed by recently developed steganography techniques. To address the limitations of conventional approaches, a sequence-learning-based malicious DNA sequence analysis method based on neural networks has been proposed. The proposed method learns intrinsic distributions and identifies distribution variations using a classification score to predict whether a sequence is to be a coding or non-coding sequence. Based on our experiments and results, we have developed a framework to safeguard security against DNA steganography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)888-898
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2004-2012 IEEE.


  • DNA malicious sequence analysis
  • DNA steganalysis
  • DNA steganography
  • DNA watermark analysis


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