A new type of peroxidase ('thiol peroxidase'; TPx) having cysteine as the primary site of catalysis has been discovered from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In addition to two yeast TPx isoforms (TSA I and TSA II/AHPC1) previously described, three additional TPx homologues were identified by analysis of the open reading frame data base for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three novel isoforms showed a distinct thiol peroxidase activity supported by thioredoxin, and appeared to be distinctively localized in cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. Each isoform was named after its subcellular localization such as cytoplasmic TPx I (cTPx I or TSA I), cTPx II, cTPx III (TSA II/AHPC1), mitochondrial TPx (mTPx), and nuclear TPx (nTPx). Their transcriptional activities suggest that cTPx I and cTPx III are the most predominant isoforms among the five type isoforms. Transcriptional activities of TPx isoenzymes during yeast life span were quite different from each other. Unlike other TPx null mutants, cTPx I null mutant was hypersensitive to various oxidants except for 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide. The null mutant was more resistant toward 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and acidic culture than its wild type. The severe growth retardation of cTPx II mutant resulted in accumulation of G1-phased cells. Based on kinetic properties of five isoforms, their subcellular localizations, and distinct physiology of each null mutant, we discussed the physiological functions of five types of TPx isoenzymes in yeast throughout the full growth cycle.