Comprehensive disinfectant decay and disinfection by-product formation (D/DBP) models in chlorination and ozonation were developed to apply to various types of raw and treated waters. Comparison of several types of models, such as empirical power function models and empirical kinetic models, was provided in order to choose more robust and accurate models for the D/DBP simulations. An empirical power function model based on dissolved organic carbon and other parameters (Empirically based models for predicting chlorination and ozonation by-products: haloacetic acids, chloral hydrate, and bromate, EPA Report CX 819579, 1998) showed a strong correlation between measured and predicted trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation for raw waters. Internal evaluation of kinetic-based models showed good predictions for chlorine decay and THM/HAA formation, but no significant improvements were observed compared to the empirical power function model simulations. In addition, several empirical models for predicting ozone decay and bromate (ozonation disinfection by-product) formation were also evaluated and/or developed. Several attempts to develop kinetic-based and alternative models were made: (i) a two-stage model (two separate decay models) was adapted to ozone decay and (ii) an ozone demand model was developed for bromate formation. Generally, internal evaluation of kinetic-based models for ozone decay showed significant improvements, but no significant improvements for the simulation of bromate formation were observed compared to the empirical power function model simulations. Additional efforts were performed to reduce the gaps between specific models and their actual application. For instance, temperature effects and configuration of ozone contactors were considered in actual application.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge Zaid Chowdhury and Kenan Ozekin for providing valuable data for this study, and to Generale des Eaux for partial support of this work.