Discriminations of the A-Not A difference test improved when " A" was familiarized using a brand image

Min A. Kim, Ji Eun Chae, Danielle van Hout, Hye Seong Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The A-Not A difference test can be used to measure the overall sensory difference of two or more products from a reference product. It is an economically efficient method for difference testing because it is more statistically powerful and less prone to working memory problems than the triangle or duo-trio tests. With the A-Not A test, subjects are required to be familiar with the reference product to stabilize their cognitive decision criteria. An effective familiarization procedure is needed. In the present study, the effects of four different familiarization procedures were investigated: (1) 2-AFCR, (2) no-additional familiarization, (3) repeated tastings of the reference, and (4) repeated tastings of the reference with a brand image provided. Two products were discriminated from a reference using 12 subjects over repeated sessions. Comparisons of the test performances, analyzed with d' estimates, showed that there was a tendency toward better discrimination when repeated tastings of the reference were accompanied by a brand image.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-12
Number of pages10
JournalFood Quality and Preference
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • 2-AFCR
  • A-Not A
  • Analytical overall difference test
  • D'
  • Familiarization
  • Implicit learning


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